Below are some terms and their meaning, these terms are commonly used in the mortgage process.
Adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM):
A mortgage with an interest rate and payment that change periodically over the
life of the loan based on changes in a specified index.
A debt security whose issuer has the right to redeem the security at a specified
price on or after a specified date, but prior to its stated final maturity.
The portion of principal and interest due on a loan that is written off when
deemed to be uncollectible.
A security that represents ownership in a company but gives no legal claim to a
definite dividend or to a return of capital.
A mortgage loan that is not insured or guaranteed by the federal government.
A method to reduce credit risk by requiring collateral, letters of credit,
mortgage insurance, corporate guarantees, or other agreements to provide an
entity with some assurance that it will be recompensed to some degree in the
event of a financial loss.
Credit loss ratio:
The ratio of credit-related losses to the dollar amount of MBS outstanding and
total mortgages owned by the corporation.
The sum of foreclosed property expenses plus the provision for losses.
The sum of foreclosed property expenses plus charge-offs.
A process that uses recorded information about individuals and their loan
requests to assess - in a quantifiable, objective, and consistent manner - their
future performance regarding debt repayment.
A security in which the issuing company generally agrees to repay the principal
(typically, the original amount borrowed) and make interest payments according
to an agreed schedule.
The failure of a borrower to comply with the terms of a note or the provisions
of a mortgage.
A mortgage loan on which a payment has not been made by the due date.
A financial instrument which derives its value from an underlying security or
The weighted-average life of the present value of all future cash flows, both
principal and interest, of a security. It is used as a measure of the
sensitivity of the value of a security to changes in interest rates.
Earnings per share (EPS):
The net earnings of a corporation divided by the average number of shares of its
common stock outstanding during a period. A common method of expressing a
A mortgage loan in which the interest rate does not change during the entire
term of the loan.
The lender's postponement of legal action when a borrower is delinquent. It is
usually granted when a borrower makes satisfactory arrangements to bring the
overdue mortgage payments up to date.
The legal process by which property that is mortgaged as security for a loan may
be sold to pay a defaulting borrower's loan.
Global Debt Facility:
A debt issuance facility through which U.S. dollar and foreign currency debt
securities may be offered to investors worldwide with the feature of clearing
and settlement through a variety of clearing systems.
Compensation paid by a lender to Fannie Mae for the guarantee of timely payments
of principal and interest to MBS security holders.
Interest rate swap:
A transaction between two parties in which each agrees to exchange payments tied
to different interest rates or indices for a specified period of time, generally
based on a notional principal amount.
A mortgage loan with a contractual maturity at time of purchase equal to or less
than 20 years.
Lender option commitments:
An agreement giving a lender the option to deliver loans or securities by a
certain date at agreed-upon terms.
The tasks a lender performs to protect a mortgage investment, including
collecting monthly payments from borrowers and dealing with delinquencies.
Loan-to-value (LTV) ratio:
The relationship between the dollar amount of a borrower's mortgage loan and the
value of the property.
Activities designed to reduce either the likelihood of the corporation suffering
financial losses on a loan or the final dollar value of those losses in the
event of a borrower default.
Mandatory delivery commitment:
An agreement that a lender will deliver loans or securities by a certain date at
Unsecured general obligations of Fannie Mae with maturities of one day or more
and with principal and interest payable in U.S. dollars.
Any change to the original terms of a mortgage.
A legal document that pledges property to a lender as security for the repayment
of the loan. The term also is used to refer to the loan itself.
Mortgage-Backed Security (MBS):
A Fannie Mae security that represents an undivided interest in a group of
mortgages. Principal and interest payments from the individual mortgage loans
are grouped and paid out to the MBS holders.
A building with more than four residential rental units.
Abbreviation for Notice Of Default.
Notice of Default
An official notice filed and recorded by a designated trustee at the request of a lender indicating lender has commenced foreclosure action.
An asset such as a mortgage that is not currently accruing interest or on which
interest is not being paid.
Notional principal amount:
The hypothetical amount on which interest rate swap payments are based. The
notional principal amount in an interest rate swap generally is not paid or
received by either party.
Stock that takes priority over common stock with regard to dividends and
liquidation rights. Preferred stockholders typically have no voting rights.
A procedure in which the borrower is allowed to sell his or her property for an
amount less than what is owed on it to avoid a foreclosure. This sale fully
satisfies the borrower's debt.
Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (REMIC):
A security that represents a beneficial interest in a trust having multiple
classes of securities. The securities of each class entitle investors to cash
flows structured differently from the payments on the underlying mortgages.
An agreement between a lender and a borrower who is delinquent on his or her
mortgage payments, in which the borrower agrees to make additional payments to
pay down past due amounts while still making regularly scheduled payments.
Return on average common equity:
Net income available to common stockholders, as a percentage of average common
A financial tool which provides seniors with funds from the equity in their
homes. Generally, no payments are made on a reverse mortgage until the borrower
moves or the property is sold. The final repayment obligation is designed to not
exceed the proceeds from the sale of the home.
The amount of capital necessary to absorb losses throughout a hypothetical
ten-year period marked by severely adverse circumstances.
Secondary mortgage market:
The market in which residential mortgages or mortgage securities are bought and
A financial instrument showing ownership of equity (such as common stock),
indebtedness (such as a debt security), a group of mortgages (such as MBS), or
potential ownership (such as an option).
A single-family mortgage that is 90 days or more past due, or a multifamily
mortgage that is two months or more past due.
Short refinance is the replacement of a mortgage, usually with a reduced mortgage, when the borrower is already in default. This is done to transition the borrower to a more affordable payment structure. The lender has to write off the difference between the old mortgage and the new mortgage, but in some cases this may be preferable to foreclosure.
To sell a home through negotiation with the bank or lender, who agrees to accept less than the full amount owed to satisfy the debt allowing the debt to be ‘paid off’, short. Short sales are subject to bank approval and are often used as options in lieu of foreclosure.
The sum of proceeds from the issuance of stock and retained earnings less
amounts paid to repurchase common shares.
Stripped MBS (SMBS):
Securities created by "stripping" or separating the principal and interest
payments from the underlying pool of mortgages into two classes of securities,
with each receiving a different proportion of the principal and interest
A bank or trust company charged with keeping a record of a company's
stockholders and canceling and issuing certificates as shares are bought and
The process of evaluating a loan application to determine the risk involved for
the lender. It involves an analysis of the borrower's ability and willingness to
repay the debt and the value of the property.